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The Lance Stroll Case: An Amerindian in Formula One

 

Updated on September 1st, 2020

Revised on September 4th and 5th, 2020

 

Abstract: It is not racism to not support Lance Stroll, but it is when they deny his talent and praise White drivers with fewer deeds.

 

Canadian driver Lance Stroll is periodically subject to sports news and comments from Formula One fans. Unfortunately, most of them are offensive and discharge abnormal hate against an innocent boy (who did nothing to his detractors, who do not even know him personally). Several hypotheses are raised about the origin of this hatred: envy for the Stroll family fortune, fanaticism for rival drivers, ignorance about who Lance is, among others. But only one is closer to the truth: racism against indigenous peoples.

Some haters remember his mother is Belgian, while others say his skin is lighter. Such phrases relate to how much current society is unaware of the indigenous peoples of the Americas. In this article, we will prove the anger many netizens (and even press members) have about Lance Stroll is nothing more than the desire for an all-white sport.

 

1- An Amerindian driver in Formula One

 

Born in Montreal on October 29th, 1998, Lance Stroll is the second child of businessman Lawrence Stroll and fashion designer Claire-Anne Callens. Lance is of Russian-Jewish and Inuit (native people of Canada, including Quebec, the homeland of the Strolls) descent by his father’s side, and from Belgian and English descent by his mother’s side. Lawrence Stroll is the son of a Russian-Jewish immigrant father and a Canadian mother, has reddish skin, straight, thick hair, and slightly slanted eyes. Claire-Anne Callens has white skin and blue eyes. The result of miscegenation is noted in the couple’s children: Chloe, the eldest child, has her mother’s eyes, but her father’s face shape; Lance, the youngest child, has his mother’s face shape, but his father’s slightly slanted brown eyes and dark, straight, thick hair. Lance’s skin is lighter than Lawrence’s and redder than Claire’s.

 

The Strolls. From right to left: Claire-Anne (mother), Lance (son), Lawrence (father), and Chloe (daughter). (Photo: Thill Arthur / ATP) [1]

 

In the Americas, due to past colonization, slavery, and immigration, miscegenation is inevitable; it is no different in Canada, where Native peoples had contact with Europeans (white-skinned) and Africans (black-skinned);

When two people of different skin colors have children, these ones are called mixed-race. In Brazil, for example, mixed-race people receive names according to their origins. The children of a Black parent and a White one are called mulatos; those born to a Native parent and a Black one are called cafusos; children of a White parent and a Native one (such as Stroll) are called caboclos or mamelucos;

In genetics, there is a high probability that mixed-race people with white ancestors to have white children when they marry white people. In the nineteenth century, the United States banned interracial marriages. However, the Brazilian government encouraged marriage to whites to “whiten” future generations.

Having a lighter skin tone than their ancestors does not nullify mixed-race person origins. The Caboclos maintain their Amerindian origins even with their skin lighter than an ‘Indian’ one. They are of both Amerindian and European descent. Lance Stroll fits in this case.

 

Physical characteristics of Lance Stroll that prove his Amerindian origin. [2]

 

2- How the European people describe the Amerindians

 

Formula One was created in the 1950s. It was not even a decade since the fall of the Nazi-fascist regimes in Europe. These ones were characterized by intense state repression and persecution of minority ethnic groups (mainly Jews) under racial pretenses. Since the nineteenth century, with the formulation of social Darwinism, schools and intellectuals in Europe have taught that races are organized into a hierarchy. Then, the European-whites are considered superior to the others and the mixed-races inferior to all the so-called pure races.

Some anthropologists such as Edward Tylor used to defend that theory and to claim the social evolutionism, a hierarchy between cultures; Even with efforts by others, such as Franz Boas, in showing that it is not possible; European society was convinced about its advantage;

However, this phenomenon has older origins. Since the colonization of the Americas by nations of Europe, various power-holding groups have launched propaganda to support the colonizing process; In Brazil, for example, after the death of Bishop Pedro Fernandes Sardinha (who would have been devoured by anthropophagous Amerindians) in the 16th century, the Catholic Church promoted campaigns that treated Amerindians as animalistic, savage beings, to justify its catechizing campaigns and the Portuguese control; it led to catastrophic consequences and the extermination of the tribe accused of killing the bishop, the Caetés;

 

Image of the 1882 Brazilian Anthropological Exhibition, illustrating a Brazilian indigenous and an African slave being exhibited in Europe. Notice how Amerindians and blacks are portrayed in an animalistic way compared to whites. (Photo: National Museum of Rio de Janeiro) [3]

 

In the 1950s, the European population still did not understand what the native peoples of the Americas were like. Some decades earlier, in 1911, Scottish James Matthew Barrie released his most famous work, Peter Pan. In the story, a Native American tribe is portrayed as submissive to the protagonist;

It can be noted on the daughter of their chief: Princess Tiger Lily does everything for Peter, even his feelings for her not being the same he has for Wendy Darling, an English girl he brought to Neverland; In 1953, Walt Disney adapted the work into an animated film in which the natives take a larger role in the song What Makes the Red Man Red. In the scene, the tribe is made up of individuals standing in time, isolated from the rest of the world, and wearing the same clothes as their ancestors. The stereotype around Native American people has generated so much controversy for Disney that the studios chose to not include the characters in the sequel film Return to Neverland (2002).

 

Native American tribe from the movie Peter Pan (1953). (Photo: Disney) [4]

 

Since Amerindians lived only on the American continent, Europe had no interest in combating prejudice against them, let alone self-criticizing the interaction between Whites and Amerindians over the centuries. Even in countries of the Americas, the Natives were still marginalized and excluded from society. Only with the organization and struggle of these peoples, especially in the twentieth century, was the issue taken more seriously. On April 19th, 1940, the First Inter-American Indian Congress was held to promote the fight against racism and to pressure American countries to adopt policies to protect and guarantee indigenous rights. That is why in Argentina, Costa Rica, and Brazil, Indian Day is celebrated on April 19th.

Formula One aimed to encourage interest in the auto industry. At the time, consumers in this industry were White men. Women were forbidden to drive in many countries around the world, and Black and Amerindian people lived in segregation, rendering them unable to access vehicles. Therefore, the category focused on pleasing the European white male public, its consumer market. Due to this, Formula One was dominated by Europeans and their descendants for many years (Juan Manuel Fangio, Argentine driver who was the second champion of the category, was of Italian descent).

 

3- Revson and Hamilton: breaking the hegemony

 

In 1964, American Peter Revson debuted as the first Jew in the category, breaking years of European white rule in Formula One. It is worth remembering that the Jewish people have been persecuted since ancient times and were the majority group among Holocaust victims. Previously, they had suffered invasions of its lands by Assyrians, Persians, Greeks, and Romans, inquisitions by the Catholic Church, pogroms in the Russian Empire, and many other policies of segregation and extermination); Besides this, though a quarter of the Jews has white skin like Revson, racial theories do not consider they as White because they originate in the Middle East; then, White supremacy groups persecute them;

Revson drove for ten years with Revson Racing, Reg Parnell, Tyrell, McLaren, and Shadow Racing. He won two races, got eight podiums, scored 14 times, and accumulated 61 points throughout his career. He died in a training accident for the 1974 South African Grand Prix.

Forty-three years later, in 2007, the first Black Formula One driver, British Lewis Hamilton, debuted. Son of a White mother and Black father born to Caribbean immigrants, Hamilton joined McLaren to race alongside Spanish Fernando Alonso. Early at pre-season training sessions, he suffered racial offenses by Alonso’s fans, who called him a monkey. Some people say the reason behind the insults was not racial but sporting because Alonso’s fans loved the Spanish driver. But if so, wouldn’t it be more logical to call Hamilton a loser or to say that Alonso would finish him off? Calling him a monkey, an offense historically associated with Black people proves that Spanish fans’ hatred of Hamilton was, indeed, racism.

Hamilton started the year with a podium, got his first win, and became runner-up in 2007. The following year, he was still champion with McLaren. But even with his brilliant results, the Englishman was still not free from racial persecution. At the 2011 Monaco Grand Prix, the stewards punished Hamilton for a collision with Felipe Massa, a Brazilian driver of Italian descent. He questioned the punishment and accused the stewards of taking a decision based on the drivers’ skin color, as Massa was White and Hamilton Black. Instead of investigating the case, those responsible for Formula One filed a censure against the British driver, prohibiting him from accusing the stewards of racism again. The best decision, in this case, would be to show the crash video to both drivers and clarify the reasons for the punishment. By silencing Hamilton, sports administrators left room for the hypothesis of racism to be taken into account.

 

Peter Revson (left) and Lewis Hamilton (right): respectively the first Jewish driver and the first Black driver in Formula One. [5]

 

Another case of racism suffered by the British driver occurred at the 2019 Italian Grand Prix, whose arbitration is still questioned today. Racing for Mercedes, Hamilton had a chance of overtaking Charles Leclerc, a Monegasque driver who represented Ferrari. To block the opponent, Leclerc squeezed him against the wall, taking it to an investigation. However, the stewards decided to just warn Leclerc with a black and white flag. After the Monegasque driver’s victory, Hamilton climbed to second place on the podium, and Italian fans booed him hardly. Some even made gestures and sounds imitating monkeys. Hamilton posted a recommendation on Instagram to Italians to not be disrespectful as it would tarnish the image of a crowd known for its joy and enthusiasm. No Formula One’s official has even commented on the case.

Centuries of White superiority teachings have left deep marks on European society, so racism gets unnoticed and banalized until nowadays. In the Americas, antiracism movements have more supporters than in Europe, but some people refuse to recognize racial discrimination as a problem anyway;

In Brazil, for example, some European immigrants married Native and Black persons, while others preferred to marry other Europeans and raise their children on the dominant ideas in Europe; it led some Brazilians to believe racism is not a serious subject and to tolerate discrimination against Blacks and Amerindians; even athletes;

At the 2008 Brazilian Grand Prix, whose result guaranteed Hamilton as the champion, even with Massa winning the race, Brazilian fans booed the English driver and called him a monkey; it proved that the Brazilian racial utopia is just a legend;

 

4- Amerindian and Jewish: the perfect scapegoat

 

Lance Stroll belongs to two historically persecuted and massacred peoples: the Amerindians and the Jews. These two groups were never well regarded by European society. In the Eurocentric view, the Amerindians were cannibals, savages, animals, uncivilized, and needed conversion or to be tamed and enslaved; According to prevalent ideas, Jews were deicidal, heretics who controlled the banks, the media, and politics, and should be converted or burned for not accepting the Christian truth and being of an inferior race;

Even with the fall of Nazism, these ideas have not been erased from the European mindset altogether. There are still figures on the world scenario who deny the Holocaust, accuse the Jews of conspiracy, and argue that Amerindians should give up their original cultures.

 

Lance Stroll playing American football in childhood. Notice the Inuit characteristics in the boy. (Photo: Instagram) [6]

Many people in Europe and the Americas still view Amerindians as standing in time, forest dwellers, who live on hunting and fishing; so they cannot understand that Amerindians can be successful entrepreneurs;
Since Formula Three does not get as much attention as Formula One, not all sports fans knew about Lance Stroll’s achievements; all they knew about him was that he was from Canada and his father was a billionaire; they disregarded that all drivers receive an investment to maintain their careers; Even drivers as Esteban Ocon have sponsors to fund them in sports;

In pre-season 2017, having no experience with the Formula One car, Stroll crashed several times. While some took advantage of the situation to make jokes, some hastily accused the young man of buying a seat. Well, even if Stroll had paid to enter Formula One, that would not be cause for so much hatred. After all, he had been hired by Williams to replace a retiring driver, Felipe Massa. The Brazilian driver gave up his retirement after Valtteri Bottas left for Mercedes to replace retired Nico Rosberg. No one bought the seat from anyone. Bottas and Stroll were just replacing retired drivers. Why so much hatred on Stroll, who until then was no rival to anyone?

The answer to that question is simple: fans wanted to see another European at Williams. It bothers many people to deal with a Black driver in Formula One, then an Amerindian driver was coming, instead of a White one;
This is why Lawrence Stroll’s fortune causes such hatred to netizens: even though he is married to a European woman, even though his companies are creating jobs and supporting families, even though his money has been obtained legally, without involvement in any scandal, they still see him as an uncivilized savage cannibal inferior to the Europeans. Just imagine how outraged these netizens must have been to see for the first time a driver from the American continent be a EUROPEAN Formula 3 champion.

 

Lance Stroll was the first Amerindian to win the European Formula Three championship. Racists wanted to see a European driver as the champion. (Photo: Prema Powerteam) [7]

 

Motivated by racial hatred for Stroll, racists threw acid criticism of the Canadian driver’s presence in Formula One as if he were to blame for all the ills in the world. He felt in the skin what his people had suffered for centuries.

While self-called social avengers online, who do not even give alms to a needy beggar, hate the Strolls for their fortune, Lance proves that he does not match with the stereotype of the selfish rich man; He engages in charitable actions, like a visit to the Montreal Children’s Hospitala campaign to drill water wells in the Gambia, and a generous donation to the Los Angeles Fire Department Foundation to combat wildfires in California;

His haters purposely ignore the fact that there are equally rich drivers whose results are not close to Lance’s. Why? Because they are not disturbed by White people being rich as they are by wealthy Amerindians; They blame an Amerindian-Jewish man for all the misfortunes of the world as if a single Canadian driver were responsible for world hunger and misery; Wealthy White people are acquitted of it;

Why? Because racists on the internet and media cannot stand to see that an Amerindian driver has accomplished feats that many whites were unable to obtain. Nor that eight White drivers, including Fernando Alonso (the same idol of the racists who called Hamilton a monkey), went after an Amerindian in his debut year. To do so, they omit not only his deeds, but they also omit Lance’s ethnicity from the discussions. They use the excuse that Stroll’s mother is white to say that he is no longer an ‘Indian’. Nobody stops being ‘Indian’. It is like stopping being old: ethnicity, like age, is an inherent characteristic of each person.

 

5- White cannot be pay drivers, only the Amerindian ones

 

The fact is that the 21st century is not the same as the twentieth. Even with the persistence of racism, combat movements are stronger today than in the last century. Western society is more aware of the importance of respect and that no ethnicity or culture is superior or inferior to another. Therefore, even the most convinced racists try to mask their racism to avoid being condemned by public opinion.

The excuse racists found to criticize the presence of an Amerindian in Formula One without realizing the racial motives was to underscore his father’s fortune. And as Nazi propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels said, a lie told many times becomes a truth; Then, some journalists and netizens are so numb with prejudice and the idea that Stroll does not deserve his seat that they refuse to even read his story before judging him;

They convinced themselves that Amerindians should be ignored, treated with contempt like centuries ago, when European settlers massacred tribes, enslaved Natives, and forced them to give up their original cultures;

But racists end up missing their plan by committing a fatal slip: unaware of the ethnicity they deem inferior. Many netizens claim to not know that Lance Stroll is Amerindian, and others deny he is one; The same excuse was given when the same racists claimed not to know that Stroll is Jewish; The reasons: Stroll does not wear a kippah (and even if he did, it would be hidden under his helmet), has not peyot (the hair curls on his temples), and has no ‘big nose’;

The first step in identifying a racist is to note that they generalize all members of a group as if they were all equal. In this case, because Lance is not a Hasidic Orthodox Jew, they think there’s no way of knowing that he is Jewish. The internet makes research work easier; however, racists do not see the need to research those they consider inferior.

 

 

The Jewish people are made up of diverse ethnicities. It is wrong to think that all Jews are equal. In the image above you can see four Jewish ethnic groups: Ashkenazim, Sephardim, Ethiopian Jews (also called Beta Israel), and Mizrahim.  [8]

 

Even more absurd is the excuse of not knowing that Stroll is Amerindian. The reasons: he does not use an ‘Indian’ headdress, does not hunt and fish with a spear, does not live in the woods or an ‘Indian’ reservation, and his skin is lighter than ‘Indian’ skin. This reveals much of today’s society’s ignorance of indigenous peoples.

In the first place, there is not just one Amerindian ethnicity. Grouping all the native tribes and nations of the Americas as unique was only an instrument of the colonizers to convince the European monarchs that the Amerindians would be easily defeated and tamed. There are Amerindians of various skin tones.

For example, the skin tone of the Métis (a Native people from Canada) is lighter than the Inuits, and that does not make them fewer ‘Indian’ than the others. Among the American tribes, Quileutes are different from the Navajos, which are different from the Cherokees, which are different from Ottawas, which are different from Potawatomis, which are different from Powhatans, and so on. In Brazil, the Tupiniquins differ from the Guaranis, Yanomamis, Jês, among others.

Indeed, most Amerindians have a dark, straight, thick hair, a reddish skin, slightly drawn eyes, and few body hairs, but they are not all like that. Ironically, Stroll has many of these characteristics, but for not living isolated from contemporary society, his detractors omit he is Amerindian;

 

There are thousands of Amerindian ethnic groups on the American continent. Each tribe has particularities such as culture, religion, dress, language, and customs. In the picture above you can see four Amerindian ethnic groups: the Inuits (Canada), the Navajos (USA), the Seris (Mexico), and the Yanomamis (Brazil). [9]

 

As you can see, former Bolivian President Evo Morales has the same kind of hair and eyes as Lance Stroll. Morales is of Aymara ethnicity and Stroll is mixed-race of Inuit ethnicity with European ethnicity. Both have indigenous origins. [10]

 

The problem with racism against Amerindians is that it goes unnoticed by the population because there is not much media attention about it as there is for prejudice against other ethnicities. The Amerindians struggle for respect is silenced by media contempt, and some say they have never heard of an Amerindian. When the word racism is heard, it is rarely associated with Amerindians, and they only appear on the news when the government or a farmer or prospector invades the reserve lands and clashes with its members;

And the hard evidence that the haters’ hatred for Stroll has nothing to do with money but skin color is their idolatry for the English driver Lando Norris; He is the son of magnate Adam Norris, a millionaire owner of Horatio Investment whose personal fortune is £205 million, being the 18th richest man in the United Kingdom;

Unlike Stroll, who debuted in an uncompetitive team, Norris debuted in McLaren in a year it had upgrades which guaranteed it a performance good enough to compete for the top five places; Differently from Stroll, who finished his debut year just three points behind his experienced teammate (even surpassing him in the standings at times), Norris ended the year with 47 points less than teammate Carlos Sainz Jr., who had four years of experience; Sainz also got the team’s only podium of the year with a third-place finish at the 2019 Brazilian Grand Prix;

Compared their results, there is no doubt that Lance Stroll is better than Lando Norris. In his debut year, Lance got a podium, started from the front row, and broke two records (for the youngest rookie do both things). His achievements secured his team’s fifth place in the constructors’ championship. In his debut year, Lando did not achieve any podium or record. His best result was sixth place in Bahrain and Austria (Lance was fourth in Germany);

To mask his mediocrity as an athlete, Norris launched a marketing campaign for fans and Formula One itself to remind him as a funny driver rather than a pay driver who is only in sport because his father is a millionaire businessman; They make several memes, fake profiles spread them, and anything Norris does is followed by a lot of people laughing, considering him the best driver, even though he is not doing anything impressive; Also, Petrobras’ sponsorship of McLaren ensured that Brazilian narrators and commentators praised Norris as if he were the reincarnation of Ayrton Senna himself;

So, if Lando Norris is also a millionaire and has much lower results, why is Lance Stroll called a pay driver? Indeed, in Norris’ glory year, Stroll’s best performance was higher than his, and the English driver still does not have the same achievements as the Canadian; Sport director Nuno Pinto also points that Lance’s curriculum is more impressive than Lando’s, and that he was the first driver to fulfill the FIA’s rule against pay drivers (scoring at least 40 points in the Superlicense); And yet netizens and the media idolize Norris and stone Stroll; This proves that it is not money that matters, it is the color of the person who has the money;

 

 

The logic of racists: If you are Amerindian, you are a pay driver; if you are white, you may be the most mediocre driver that we will praise you. [11]

 

Another case of racism was when the media tried to blame Lance Stroll for Esteban Ocon’s departure from Formula One (see Understand the Esteban Ocon Case) after the Canadian’s father bought the team, saved 405 jobs, and kept Ocon until the end of his contract (you see, even with this detail, racists go into the absurdity of accusing Lawrence of buying teams for Lance); They omit that Ocon was already leaving when his sponsor Toto Wolff promised him a seat at Mercedes, Renault, or McLaren, but all the other teams refused;

In other words, is it Stroll or Wolff, who lied to his sponsored, to blame? And why do not they blame Daniel Ricciardo, Lando Norris, Carlos Sainz Jr., or George Russell for Ocon’s departure? Because all of these men are White.

And speaking of George Russell, he proved that many times the media only criticizes minorities while evades whites from guilty. In 2018, with Williams’ poor performance due to its engineering department, headed by Paddy Lowe, the media blamed Lance Stroll for not scoring enough points; Stroll finished that year second to last, beating Romain Grosjean and teammate Sergey Sirotkin; When George Russell and Robert Kubica replaced Stroll and Sirotkin, Williams’ car performance worsened, and the team scored just one point, scored by Kubica; At no point was Russell’s hiring criticized, even though he was unable to get a meager point; The media preferred to consider Russell an excellent driver victim of an incompetent team, a title they would give Stroll if he were not Amerindian;

 

6- You already knew he is Amerindian; you just do not want to admit it

 

When announced as a 2017 Williams driver, Lance Stroll was in evidence. There was an interest from the media and netizens to get to know him better; It was readily noted a resemblance between Lance and American actor Taylor Lautner (famous for playing Native American werewolf Jacob Black in the Twilight saga); Interestingly, even though Lautner was the son of an Amerindian mother, there were still people who doubted his ethnicity because his father was of pure European descent;

If Lautner was not Amerindian, he would not have been called to play an Amerindian character, right? And if Stroll was not an Amerindian, it would not make sense comparing him to an Amerindian actor. Why not compare him to Will Smith or Leonardo DiCaprio? Because he does not have the same ethnicity as these two but as Taylor Lautner.

 

A photo that compares Lance Stroll to Taylor Lautner. (Photo: Blig Groo) [12]

 

Humorous site F1 Fanatic calling Stroll the “cover of Twilight werewolf” (“cover do lobisomem do crepúsculo). For those who do not know, Jacob Black, the werewolf in the Twilight saga, is a native of the Quileute tribe. (Photo: F1 Fanatic) [13]

 

7- What do we learn from this?

 

  • That Lance Stroll is not taking anyone’s seat. He was hired to replace a retiring driver.
  • That Lance Stroll has more achievements than many European White drivers, and this bothers a lot of people.
  • That despite having a Belgian mother and a Russian grandfather, Lance Stroll is also of Inuit descent; As a mixed-race person, he has both European and Amerindian origins;
  • That there is not just one Amerindian appearance; There are thousands of indigenous tribes in America, each with its ethnicity and culture;
  • No matter how good the driver is, he will always be a victim of racism if he belongs to an ethnic minority (ex: Lewis Hamilton);
  • That no driver gets to Formula One without financial support (including Brazilians); The problem with Strolls’ fortune, which earned honestly and fairly, is pure anger of people who think Amerindians cannot succeed;
  • That every Lance Stroll hater is either a racist, angry to see Amerindian athletes (and even beating White ones), or is an idiot who repeats the racist fallacy, as they are unable to think with their heads and swallow everything the media and the internet says;

Knowing this, the next time you see or hear a netizen or television host (narrator or commentator) calling Lance Stroll a pay driver or rich boy, or accusing him of stealing someone’s seat, know you are facing a case of racism; Report it, confront them, tell the truth to this person; Do not let racism thrive;

If we want a society where everyone is equal, do not ignore prejudice with others; Unmask the racist; Make them shut up; Amerindians are human beings like all other ethnicities and origins, and as such deserve our respect and support;

 

Addendum (March 11th, 2020): On March 11th, 2020, The Racing Track’s page on Instagram was a target of a racist comment from a profile called official_alexalbon, which stated that “Jews deserve ‘Aushwitz’ not f1 seats”. This is a clear proof of what was demonstrated in this article: who is against the presence of Lance Stroll in Formula One is against the presence of Amerindian and Jewish drivers in the sport, using the Canadian family’s fortune as an excuse for the disproportionate hatred of a person they do not even know. Bearing in mind that supporting European white drivers, or even not being a fan of Lance Stroll does not make the supporter a racist (at no time did the article imply this), but using a double standard to judge the drivers, ignoring the achievements of Stroll and demoting them compared to equally wealthy white drivers whose results in the sport were inferior is an act of racism. Below is the photo of the comment:

 

To those who doubted racism against Lance Stroll was real, there is the proof.

 

Erratum: Originally, the text said that Lance Stroll had broken three records on his debut year in Formula One: youngest rookie to get a podium, youngest driver to start from the first row, and youngest average age of podium finishers. However, this one was broken at the 2019 Brazilian Grand Prix, and before that round, the 2017 Azerbaijan Grand Prix’s podium, which Stroll took part, had the tenth youngest average age of the finishers. After being informed about the mistake, we corrected the paragraph.

 

8- Bibliography

 

 

Photos

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