Amid the Covid-19 pandemic that caused the cancellation and postponement of many races of the 2020 season, two announcements alarmed the sports media. One of them was the dismissal of Sebastian Vettel from Ferrari. The other is related to the severe financial crisis that affects Williams. Champion in the past, the British team, led by Claire Williams, underwent many bad management periods that culminated in a potential bankruptcy. Amid so much speculation, we will unravel the reasons that brought Williams to the current situation.
1- Origins: from Lady Virginia’s love to the first crisis
Williams’s origins come from two loves: Virginia Berry for Frank Williams and his for cars. Having come from a humble family, Frank joined a group of wealthy friends who loved races. To earn some money, he worked buying and selling car parts. Therefore, founded Frank Williams Racing Cars in 1966 and entered the automobile market, selling cars to drivers from diverse countries, mainly Italians. In the following year, he met Virginia, a wealthy but married woman. Both started a relationship, and she got divorced from her husband to be with Frank. After participating in some Formula Three rounds, known for his dangerous and risky way of driving, Frank turned Frank Williams Racing Cars into a Formula One team, having Piers Courage as the main driver.
Piers Courage, Frank Williams’ trusted driver. (Photo: nobresdogrid.com.br) 
However, in 1970, Courage died in a tragic accident at the Dutch Grand Prix. His death made Frank Williams very sad. In the following years, being renamed Williams FW by 1973, the team’s performance fell drastically and was criticized by the press. The cars were made with second-hand materials due to the team’s low budget. Having married Frank officially in 1974, Virginia made many sacrifices to keep the team, including selling her apartment. However, both the Williams family and the team experienced miserable days. With poor structure, the cars did not reach good results; then Formula One paid a low amount of money to the team. Consequently, there were not many resources to invest in cars’ improvement.
Deep in debt, Frank had no choice unless to accept the offer of oil magnate Walter Wolf and sell 60% of the team in 1976. At the end of that year, Wolf removed Frank from administration and bought his part, renaming the team as Walter Wolf Racing.
Walter Wolf: the first investor to resolve a Williams crisis. (Photo: reporter.si) 
2- Restart: Patrick Head and the new Williams
In 1977, Frank Williams signed with Belgian brewery Belle Vue, sponsor of driver Patrick Nève, and founded with Patrick Head the Williams Grand Prix Engineering Limited. As an engineer, Head was one of the responsible for the technological advance that allowed Williams’s rebirth. The team’s first year was not very encouraging, ending the season without points. However, better times were coming.
In the following year, Alan Jones got Williams’s first podium, with a third-place at United States Grand Prix. Five round later, at Great Britain, his teammate Clay Regazzoni guaranteed the first victory of the team’s history. Jones was victorious in Germany, Austria, Netherlands, and Canada and Regazzoni got podiums in Italy and Canada, ending both races in third place. Scoring 75 points, Williams became runner-up in the constructors’ championship, staying 38 behind first-place Ferrari.
Alan Jones: Williams’s first champion. (Photo: Motorsport) 
The ’80s marked Williams’s domain in Formula One. Having Alan Jones, and Carlos Reutemann in 1980, the team won for the first time as the drivers’ championship ad the constructors one. Jones was champion and Reutemann was third-place. The following year, the team was again constructors champion, with its drivers scoring 95 points (49 from Reutemann, runner-up, and 46 from Jones, third-place). In 1982, Keke Rosberg replaced Jones e became champion with 44 points. Getting six podiums, Rosberg was known as “one-victory champion,” as the only race he won that year was the Swiss Grand Prix, but his constancy in scoring guaranteed the title. Williams was fourth in the constructors’ championship, repeating it the following year when Jacques Laffite replaced Reutemann.
Ending sixth in 1984 and third in 1985, Williams returned to win the constructors championship in 1986, having Nigel Mansell and Nelson Piquet (two-time champion with Brabham in 1981 and 1983) as its drivers. Mansell ended the season as runner-up, and Piquet was third-place. The following year, the Brazilian was champion and British was the runner-up. Williams conquered its fourth constructors’ championship. The team ended the decade with a seventh-place in 1988 and a second-place in 1989.
Nigel Mansell and Nelson Piquet: highlights in Williams’s golden age. (Photo: Esportes em Ação) 
3- Frank’s accident and the rise of Claire
On March 8th, 1986, Frank Williams suffered a severe car accident in France, becoming a quadriplegic. However, he kept active as the team’s director. The team repeated success in the ’90s, winning constructors championship in 1992, 1993, 1994, 1996, and 1997, and drivers championship in 1992 (with Nigel Mansell), 1993 (with Alain Prost), 1996 (with Damon Hill), and 1997 (with Jacques Villeneuve). In 1994, the team suffered a significant loss: Ayrton Senna died in an accident at San Marino Grand Prix.
Father of Jonathan, Claire, and Jaime, Frank did not trust his children to rule the team, but his daughter was always interested in the family business. Joining the communication department in 2002, Claire took the sector’s highest post eight years later. In 2012, Frank abdicated the function of team principal, and Claire took office the following year, remaining until nowadays. She is also responsible for departments of marketing, communication, and the commercial business of Williams. Her brother Jonathan also works in the team. Ele played management roles until the rise of Claire.
Claire Williams: funders’ daughter and current team’s CEO. (Photo: Pinterest) 
4- The second crisis: Toto Wolff saves the team
At the beginning of the 2000s, Williams kept itself in a good position among the constructors. It ended in third-place in 2000 and 2001, and second-place in 2002 and 2003. After 2004, the team’s performance was going down, varying between fourth and eight-place until 2009. During this period, at least one driver left Williams by year. Among the most famous names of the team in that decade stand out Juan Pablo Montoya, Mark Webber, and Nico Rosberg.
It was clear there was something wrong with the team. The agreements with engine suppliers Cosworth (2006) and Toyota (2007-2009) did not yield good results. Earning less than in glory times, Williams had not enough resources for good upgrades in carr. However, in 2009, entrepreneur Toto Wolff bought some of the team’s shares and started to integrate its board of directors. It was the perfect opportunity to get out of the crisis.
Toto Wolff: Williams’s second savior. (Photo: EsporteNET) 
In 2010, deluded with Toyota, Williams returned to use Cosworth engines, signing a long-term agreement. However, without good results, the partnership ended the following year. In 2012, the team started to use Renault engines, but performance kept well below the expected. Pastor Maldonado guaranteed the last Williams’ victory in its history at Spanish Grand Prix in that same year. Toto Wolff was named executive director, and his wife Susie was hired as a test driver. Williams had the opportunity to have, officially, the first woman in Formula One since Desiré Wilson, who drove in 1980. However, internal barriers impeded the realization of this fact, besides necessary changes in the engineering department. With this, Williams varied between sixth and ninth-place among the constructors between 2010 and 2013.
Pastor Maldonado’s win at the 2012 Spanish Grand Prix, the last of Williams. (Photo: CarsNB.com) 
5- Wolff’s exit and third crisis: Lawrence Stroll saves the team
In 2013, seeing himself with tied hands, Toto Wolff sold his shares in Williams and joined Mercedes, buying 30% of the team’s shares. Claire Williams took office as team principal and management positions. In the following year began the German team’s domain in Formula One that remains until nowadays. In 2014 and 2015, counting with Mercedes engines, Williams got back to the constructors’ podium, ending third-place. However, the team’s financial administration still had problems. Risking to close after the 2016 season, which ended fifth-place, the team needed more investments. Among its drivers, Felipe Massa announced his retirement at the end of that year, Valtteri Bottas remained in the team.
Still, in 2016, garment entrepreneur Lawrence Stroll, father of that year European Formula Three champion Lance Stroll, announced he would invest in Williams. Lance replaced Massa. However, with Nico Rosberg’s retirement, Wolff called Bottas, his patronized, to replace him at Mercedes. To complete the transference, Frank Williams’ daughter required Paddy Lowe back to the team, and he took the engineering department. According to Massa’s reports, Claire phoned him at Christman to return to the team to replace the Finnish driver.
Lance Stroll and his father Lawrence, Williams’s third savior. (Photo: F1Sport.it) 
In 2017, Williams had a medium start. Massa got some scores, and Stroll faced difficulties, with mechanical failures in the first race and accidents caused respectively by Sergio Pérez and Carlos Sainz Jr. in the following ones. The media started to attack the Canadian driver, blaming him for the team’s problems. Even before the season starts, during tests in Barcelona, Claire dared to blame Stroll’s crashes for the cancelation of one of the teams’ tests, which incited furious supporters to attack the young driver at social networks in a coward, unfair way. Lowe always criticized him in the press. At the same time, the same media that was delighted with a woman as a team principal did not have the same reaction with the debut of an Amerindian driver at the category. However, at the Azerbaijan Grand Prix, Stroll had the only podium of the team and Williams’s last until nowadays, with a third place. With this result, the team jumped to fifth place in the championship, earning a better bonus than the previous year.
Lance Stroll’s podium at the 2017 Azerbaijan Grand Prix: Williams’s last one. (Photo: Formula 1) 
Unfortunately, Stroll’s contribution to the team was not adequately recognized by people. In 2018, after Massa’s permanent retirement, Williams hired Sergey Sirotkin to replace him. Even with one more sponsor, Russian bank SMP, the engineering department did not know how to convert the investment in upgrades in the car. Consequently, both drivers had much difficulty in scoring. The media returned to attack Stroll, exonerating the engineers of any guilt for the bad performance of the cars. Some journalists ignored journalistic ethics (taught at college) and dared to use liable-to-prosecute-terms as “questionable talent drivers,” ignoring Stroll’s achievements in the previous year and championships precedent to his debut in Formula One and disregarding Sirotkin’s lack of experience. The media simply “forgot” that who makes the cars are the engineers, not the drivers, and that the team’s budget comes from sponsors (so investors are always welcome). Also, journalists used the argumentum ad hominem fallacy to attack the drivers and acquit Claire Williams and Paddy Lowe (see the source on the article written by Kadu Gouvêa at the bibliography).
Paddy Lowe, Williams’s technical director from 2017 to 2019. (Photo: Jornal Cruzeiro do Sul) 
6- Stroll’s exit and fourth crisis: masks start to fall
In mid-2018, Lawrence Stroll set up a consortium of investors and bought the Force India team. Indian authorities wanted its previous owner Vijay Mallya for alleged corruption. Lawrence kept Lance in Williams until the end of the year, even aware of his son’s difficulties with a nothing competitive car and his crucifixion by media. The Canadian driver moved to the new team, renamed Racing Point, the following year (see “Understand the Esteban Ocon Case”).
With Stroll out of the team, Williams lost its biggest scapegoat. The critics, believing the Canadian entrepreneur and his son were to blame for the team’s crisis, trusted that the new hirings would bring the team back to its golden age. However, with Stroll’s exit, Williams had the worst performance ever. Robert Kubica was the only one to score, making one point at German Grand Prix. George Russell, Toto Wolff’s sponsored, finished season without points. However, no media organ called him “pay driver,” even came from a wealthy family and not having chances to justify investment in his work, generating suspects of racism by media (see “The Lance Stroll Case: An Amerindian in Formula One”) .
George Russell: European White, he is not criticized by media even being unable to score. (Photo: AutoSport) 
Enduring in the last position of the championship with the lower bonus of its history, Williams found itself back in a severe crisis. Shortly at the beginning of 2019, seeing media now could not blame Stroll anymore and that Russell and Kubica could not get out of the last places, Lowe asked to exit from his functions claiming personal reasons. The engineering department kept failing at its job, being the most notable case of the delay in months of Kubica’s adapted steering wheel. Finally, the pressure fell into Claire. At the end of the year, Kubica was fired, and Nicholas Latifi, a Canadian driver of Iranian descent, was chosen as his substitute. Latifi had not even debuted, and some fans accused him of being a pay driver and made xenophobic offenses against Canada. There was even no statement of Williams about this.
Nicholas Latifi: had not debuted yet, and furious fans already blamed him for Williams’s fourth crisis. (Photo: tomadadetempo.com) 
In 2020, amid the paralyzation of the team’s activities due to the Covid-19 pandemic, Claire admitted that they could sell the entire Williams. Toto Wolff acquired 5% of the team’s shares in June.
7- After all, who is to blame?
Unlike what some journalists tried to instill at fans’ heads, Williams’s crisis’ fault is NOT Lawrence Stroll’s, even less Lance Stroll’s, and nor of any other investor or driver to whom the media dishonestly name as “pay driver.” No one is to blame except Claire Williams herself. As the daughter of the team’s founder and its gestor, Claire should manage the financial part better to ensure control in her hands. However, excessive spending that did not convert into results on track let the team depend on extern investments. Now, if Williams’s problem was money, how can it be possible to blame who put money on its cash? Toto Wolff and Lawrence Stroll did nothing but to HELP the British team at the moment it most needed support. Drivers and investors do not make cars; engineers do. Besides, the engineering department led by Paddy Lowe had enough money to develop a good project but failed considerably.
The fact that Lance being the son of Lawrence means absolutely nothing on the subject of Williams’s financial crisis. The Amerindian driver’s participation guaranteed to the team the fifth-place at the constructors’ championship in 2017 due to his third place at the Azerbaijan Grand Prix, justifying his father’s investment in the team. It is evident that the car’s performance is the engineer’s responsibility and financial control if for the team owners. Still, many people do not see it and, by ignorance of lack of character, blame Stroll. The media’s insistence in condemning him for all the problems that happen in current Formula One, since internal issues of the teams until the ones of the category as a whole, reflects two phenomena that follow the history of humankind and that caused the most significant tragedies.
This Einstein quote says a lot about the way the media treats Lance Stroll. (Photo: GoodReads) 
One of them is antisemitism, as powerful groups always blame Jews for the world’s misfortunes and do until now. As current society is more conscious of discrimination, the media only accuses Stroll and omits his ethnic origins (the reason for the persecution) to avoid being retaliated by public opinion. Some fans accept the speech because they go along with these ideas; others are easily fooled, reflecting what was previewed by Harold Lasswell in the 20th century: some passively accept everything the media says, without questioning anything. In the 21st century, Ben Shapiro proved the existence of this face of media, noting that it ignores the facts and shows the narrative as it wished to fulfill its agenda.
The other phenomenon is structural racism. Even with good financial conditions, Lance Stroll still belongs to minority groups (as he is Jewish and Amerindian), so the media will favor historically privileged groups (Europeans and Whites). With this, proving Shapiro’s analysis, it ignores Claire Williams’s management incompetence to blame Stroll, even without arguments and proofs. Its speech ends prevailing because many fans do not want to think, as it is more comfortable to accept what is said without checking the facts. For some people, it can seem absurd that racial questions are made in Formula One’s context, mainly in the case of a team’s bankruptcy. However, it is humanly impossible to ignore the unhealthy, unfair persecution the media and some fans do with Lance Stroll, and people must unmask the reasons.
Williams’s bad financial management put the team in four crises throughout its history. Even with suitable investments and sponsorship, the engineering department failed successively to upgrade the car so the drivers could fight for good positions and put the team back to the top of the championship. The media preferred to blame who was helping instead of the responsible ones for the car’s inefficiency. The hostile internal atmosphere keeps the team from potential investors under the fear of facing barriers to decisions (and if they belong to an ethnic minority, they risk being crucified by the press and fans and blamed by issues out of their responsibility). Then, for Williams, there is just the sale of the team or learn with its pasts and make a radical change in its attitude.
Williams’s problem: it always bites the hand that feeds it. 
Update: On March 21th, 2020, it was announced that Williams was sold to the American company Dorilton Capital.
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